9.36. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Short Form (CTQ-SF)


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28-item self-report scale relating to childhood adverse experiences including abuse.


bare skeleton or upgradable?


Exact text check.


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9.36.1. Intellectual property rights

“Pearson holds the copyright on the CTQ”

– Prof. David Bernstein, Maastricht University, personal communication to Mary-Ellen Lynall and Rudolf Cardinal, 2 May 2019.

9.36.2. Sources and notes

Original or early:

  • Bernstein DP, Fink L, Handelsman L, Foote J, Lovejoy M, Wenzel K, Sapareto E, Ruggioero J (1994). Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect. American Journal of Psychiatry 151: 1132-1136. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8037246
    • Refers to the CTQ as a 70-item self-report instrument and reproduces a sample of questions.
  • Bernstein DP & Fink L (1998). Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A retrospective self-report manual. The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Texas.
  • Bernstein DP, Stein JA, Newcomb MD, Walker E, Pogge D, Ahluvalia T, Stokes J, Handelsman L, Medrano M, Desmond D, Zule W (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect 27: 169-190. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12615092
    • Development of the 28-item CTQ-SF.
    • Funding from NIDA, NIMH.

Discussion of it:

  • DiLillo D, Fortier MA, Hayes SA, Trask E, Perry AR, Messman-Moore T, Fauchier A, Nash C (2006). Retrospective assessment of childhood sexual and physical abuse: a comparison of scaled and behaviorally specific approaches. Assessment 13: 297-312. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16880281