10.14. CAGE Questionnaire

The CAGE Questionnaire is a short screening tool for alcoholism. Its name is an acronym of its four questions (cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener).

10.14.1. History and guide

Ewing J, Rouse BA. Identifying the hidden alcoholic. Paper presented at: the 29th International Congress on Alcohol and Drug Dependence, 1970; Sydney Australia, February 3, 1970 (cited in O’Brien 2008, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18984895).

Ewing (1984), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6471323.

Mayfield et al. (1974), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4416585.

10.14.2. Sources

Mayfield et al. (1974)

10.14.3. Intellectual property rights

Believed to be in the public domain (based on Mayfield et al. 1974, Ewing 1984, O’Brien 2008) — particularly Ewing (1984), the original author, who encourages widespread use (“Although the CAGE questions have already been widely used, it is hoped that this article will serve to encourage more clinicians to incorporate them into all history-taking with patients who drink alcoholic beverages”).