10.21. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, CESD)¶
A 20-item self-report scale for detecting depression. The CESD (1977) and CESD-R (2004) both have 20 items, but their content differs slightly.
10.21.1. History and guide¶
Original reference (CES-D):
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurements, 1, 385-401; https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306.
Eaton WW, Muntaner C, Smith C, Tien A, Ybarra M. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Review and revision (CESD and CESD-R). In: Maruish ME, ed. The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment. 3rd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2004:363-377.
About the scale:
Use of the cutoff “16 or greater” as a way of detecting depression (according to the APA link above; original article paywalled):
Lewinsohn, P.M., Seeley, J.R., Roberts, R.E., & Allen, N.B. (1997). Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as a screening instrument for depression among community-residing older adults. Psychology and Aging, 12, 277-287. PMID 9189988; https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7918.104.22.1687.
Radloff (1977), as above.
First question is “I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me”.
Scoring system: https://cesd-r.com/cesdr/
First question is “My appetite was poor”.
10.21.3. Intellectual property rights¶
“This scale is free to use without permission” (http://www.bmedreport.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/CES-D-Standford-Version.pdf, accessed 2018-09-30)
“The CESD-R is in the public domain so it is free to use in your research.” (http://cesd-r.com/about-cesdr/, accessed 2018-09-30)
10.22. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Revised (CESD-R)¶