7.17. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, CESD)

A 20-item self-report scale for detecting depression. The CESD (1977) and CESD-R (2004) both have 20 items, but their content differs slightly.

7.17.1. History and guide

Original reference (CES-D):

Revision (CESD-R):

  • Eaton WW, Muntaner C, Smith C, Tien A, Ybarra M. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Review and revision (CESD and CESD-R). In: Maruish ME, ed. The Use of Psychological Testing for Treatment Planning and Outcomes Assessment. 3rd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; 2004:363-377.

About the scale:

Use of the cutoff “16 or greater” as a way of detecting depression (according to the APA link above; original article paywalled):

  • Lewinsohn, P.M., Seeley, J.R., Roberts, R.E., & Allen, N.B. (1997). Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as a screening instrument for depression among community-residing older adults. Psychology and Aging, 12, 277-287. PMID 9189988; https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.12.2.277.

7.17.2. Source



7.17.3. Intellectual property rights

7.18. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Revised (CESD-R)


(‡) Under development.