14.2.129. server/camcops_server/extra_strings/bprse.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<resources>
  <task name="bprse">
    <!-- Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Expanded (BPRS-E) -->

    <string name="option0">0 – Not assessed.</string>
    <string name="option1">1 – Not present.</string>
    <string name="q1_title">BPRS-E: 1. Somatic concern</string>
    <string name="q1_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nDegree of concern over present bodily health. Rate the degree to which physical health is perceived as a problem by the individual, whether complaints have realistic bases or not. Somatic delusions should be rated in the severe range with or without somatic concern. Note: be sure to assess the degree of impairment due to somatic concerns only and not other symptoms, e.g., depression. In addition, if the individual rates 6 or 7 due to somatic delusions, then you must rate Unusual Thought Content at least 4 or above.\n\n“Have you been concerned about your physical health?”\n“Have you had any physical illness or seen a medical doctor lately? (What does your doctor say is wrong? How serious is it?)”\n“Has anything changed regarding your appearance?”\n“Has it interfered with your ability to perform your usual activities and/or work?”\n“Did you ever feel that parts of your body had changed or stopped working?”\n\n[If individual reports any somatic concerns/delusions, ask the following:]\n“How often are you concerned about [use individual’s description]?”\n“Have you expressed any of these concerns to others?”</string>
    <string name="q1_s">Q1 (somatic concern):</string>
    <string name="q1_option2">2 – Very mild. Occasional somatic concerns that tend to be kept to self.</string>
    <string name="q1_option3">3 – Mild. Occasional somatic concerns that tend to be voiced to others (e.g., family, doctor).</string>
    <string name="q1_option4">4 – Moderate. Frequent expressions of somatic concern or exaggerations of existing ills OR some preoccupation, but no impairment in functioning. Not delusional.</string>
    <string name="q1_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Frequent expressions of somatic concern or exaggerations of existing ills OR some preoccupation and moderate impairment of functioning. Not delusional. </string>
    <string name="q1_option6">6 – Severe. Preoccupation with somatic complaints with much impairment in functioning OR somatic delusions without acting on them or disclosing to others.</string>
    <string name="q1_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Preoccupation with somatic complaints with severe impairment in functioning OR somatic delusions that tend to be acted on or disclosed to others.</string>
    <string name="q2_title">BPRS-E: 2. Anxiety</string>
    <string name="q2_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nReported apprehension, tension, fear, panic or worry. Rate only the individual’s statements – not observed anxiety which is rated under Tension.\n\n“Have you been worried a lot during [mention time frame]? Have you been nervous or apprehensive? (What do you worry about?)”\n“Are you concerned about anything? How about finances or the future?”\n“When you are feeling nervous, do your palms sweat or does your heart beat fast (or shortness of breath, trembling, choking)?”\n\n[If individual reports anxiety or autonomic accompaniment, ask the following:]\n“How much of the time have you been [use individual’s description]?”\n“Has it interfered with your ability to perform your usual activities/work?”</string>
    <string name="q2_s">Q2 (anxiety):</string>
    <string name="q2_option2">2 – Very mild. Reports some discomfort due to worry OR infrequent worries that occur more than usual for most normal individuals.</string>
    <string name="q2_option3">3 – Mild. Worried frequently but can readily turn attention to other things.</string>
    <string name="q2_option4">4 – Moderate. Worried most of the time and cannot turn attention to other things easily but no impairment in functioning OR occasional anxiety with autonomic accompaniment but no impairment in functioning.</string>
    <string name="q2_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Frequent, but not daily, periods of anxiety with autonomic accompaniment OR some areas of functioning are disrupted by anxiety or worry.</string>
    <string name="q2_option6">6 – Severe. Anxiety with autonomic accompaniment daily but not persisting throughout the day OR many areas of functioning are disrupted by anxiety or constant worry. </string>
    <string name="q2_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Anxiety with autonomic accompaniment persisting throughout the day OR most areas of functioning are disrupted by anxiety or constant worry.</string>
    <string name="q3_title">BPRS-E: 3. Depression</string>
    <string name="q3_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nInclude sadness, unhappiness, anhedonia and preoccupation with depressing topics (can’t attend to TV or conversations due to depression), hopeless, loss of self-esteem (dissatisfied or disgusted with self or feelings of worthlessness). Do not include vegetative symptoms, e.g., motor retardation, early waking or the amotivation that accompanies the deficit syndrome.\n\n“How has your mood been recently? Have you felt depressed (sad, down, unhappy, as if you didn’t care)?”\n“Are you able to switch your attention to more pleasant topics when you want to?”\n“Do you find that you have lost interest in or get less pleasure from things you used to enjoy, like family, friends, hobbies, watching TV, eating?”\n\n[If individual reports feelings of depression, ask the following:]\n“How long do these feelings last?”\n“Has it interfered with your ability to perform your usual activities?”</string>
    <string name="q3_s">Q3 (depression):</string>
    <string name="q3_option2">2 – Very mild. Occasionally feels sad, unhappy or depressed.</string>
    <string name="q3_option3">3 – Mild. Frequently feels sad or unhappy but can readily turn attention to other things.</string>
    <string name="q3_option4">4 – Moderate. Frequent periods of feeling very sad, unhappy, moderately depressed, but able to function with extra effort.</string>
    <string name="q3_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Frequent, but not daily, periods of deep depression OR some areas of functioning are disrupted by depression.</string>
    <string name="q3_option6">6 – Severe. Deeply depressed daily but not persisting throughout the day OR many areas of functioning are disrupted by depression.</string>
    <string name="q3_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Deeply depressed daily OR most areas of functioning are disrupted by depression.</string>
    <string name="q4_title">BPRS-E: 4. Suicidality</string>
    <string name="q4_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nExpressed desire, intent, or actions to harm or kill self.\n\n“Have you felt that life wasn’t worth living? Have you thought about harming or killing yourself? Have you felt tired of living or as though you would be better off dead? Have you ever felt like ending it all?”\n\n[If individual reports suicidal ideation, ask the following:]\n“How often have you thought about [use individual’s description]?”\n“Did you (Do you) have a specific plan?”</string>
    <string name="q4_s">Q4 (suicidality):</string>
    <string name="q4_option2">2 – Very mild. Occasional feelings of being tired of living. No overt suicidal thoughts.</string>
    <string name="q4_option3">3 – Mild. Occasional suicidal thoughts without intent or specific plan OR he/she feels they would be better off dead.</string>
    <string name="q4_option4">4 – Moderate. Suicidal thoughts frequent without intent or plan.</string>
    <string name="q4_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Many fantasies of suicide by various methods. May seriously consider making an attempt with specific time and plan OR impulsive suicide attempt using non-lethal method or in full view of potential saviours.</string>
    <string name="q4_option6">6 – Severe. Clearly wants to kill self. Searches for appropriate means and time, OR potentially serious suicide attempt with individual knowledge of possible rescue.</string>
    <string name="q4_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Specific suicidal plan and intent (e.g., “as soon as ________ I will do it by doing X”), OR suicide attempt characterised by plan individual thought was lethal or attempt in secluded environment.</string>
    <string name="q5_title">BPRS-E: 5. Guilt</string>
    <string name="q5_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nOverconcern or remorse for past behaviour. Rate only individual’s statements, do not infer guilt feelings from depression, anxiety, or neurotic defences. Note: if the individual rates 6 or 7 due to delusions of guilt, then you must rate Unusual Thought Content at least 4 or above, depending on level of preoccupation and impairment.\n\n“Is there anything you feel guilty about? Have you been thinking about past problems?”\n“Do you tend to blame yourself for things that have happened?”\n“Have you done anything you’re still ashamed of?”\n\n[If individual reports guilt/remorse/delusions, ask the following:]\n“How often have you been thinking about [use individual’s description]?”\n“Have you disclosed your feelings of guilt to others?”</string>
    <string name="q5_s">Q5 (guilt):</string>
    <string name="q5_option2">2 – Very mild. Concerned about having failed someone, or at something, but not preoccupied. Can shift thoughts to other matters easily.</string>
    <string name="q5_option3">3 – Mild. Concerned about having failed someone, or at something, with some preoccupation. Tends to voice guilt to others.</string>
    <string name="q5_option4">4 – Moderate. Disproportionate preoccupation with guilt, having done wrong, injured others by doing or failing to do something, but can readily turn attention to other things. </string>
    <string name="q5_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Preoccupation with guilt, having failed someone or at something, can turn attention to other things, but only with great effort. Not delusional.</string>
    <string name="q5_option6">6 – Severe. Delusional guilt OR unreasonable self-reproach very out of proportion to circumstances. Moderate preoccupation present. </string>
    <string name="q5_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Delusional guilt OR unreasonable self-reproach grossly out of proportion to circumstances. Individual is very preoccupied with guilt and is likely to disclose to others or act on delusions.</string>
    <string name="q6_title">BPRS-E: 6. Hostility</string>
    <string name="q6_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nAnimosity, contempt, belligerence, threats, arguments, tantrums, property destruction, fights, and any other expression of hostile attitudes or actions. Do not infer hostility from neurotic defences, anxiety or somatic complaints. Do not include incidents of appropriate anger or obvious self-defence.\n\n“How have you been getting along with people (family, co-workers, etc.)?”\n“Have you been irritable or grumpy lately? (How do you show it? Do you keep it to yourself?”\n“Were you ever so irritable that you would shout at people or start fights or arguments? (Have you found yourself yelling at people you didn’t know?)”\n“Have you hit anyone recently?”</string>
    <string name="q6_s">Q6 (hostility):</string>
    <string name="q6_option2">2 – Very mild. Irritable or grumpy, but not overtly expressed. </string>
    <string name="q6_option3">3 – Mild. Argumentative or sarcastic</string>
    <string name="q6_option4">4 – Moderate. Overtly angry on several occasions OR yelled at others excessively</string>
    <string name="q6_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Has threatened, slammed about or thrown things</string>
    <string name="q6_option6">6 – Severe. Has assaulted others but with no harm likely, e.g., slapped or pushed, OR destroyed property, e.g., knocked over furniture, broken windows.</string>
    <string name="q6_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Has attacked others with definite possibility of harming them or with actual harm, e.g., assault with hammer or weapon.</string>
    <string name="q7_title">BPRS-E: 7. Elevated mood</string>
    <string name="q7_question">(Rate items 7/12/13 on the basis of individual’s self-report and observed behaviour.)\n\nA pervasive, sustained and exaggerated feeling of well-being, cheerfulness, euphoria (implying a pathological mood), optimism that is out of proportion to the circumstances. Do not infer elation from increased activity or from grandiose statements alone.\n\n“Have you felt so good or high that other people thought that you were not your normal self?”\n“Have you been feeling cheerful and ‘on top of the world’ without any reason?”\n\n[If individual reports elevated mood/euphoria, ask the following:]\n“Did it seem like more than just feeling good?”\n“How long did that last?”</string>
    <string name="q7_s">Q7 (elevated mood):</string>
    <string name="q7_option2">2 – Very mild. Seems to be very happy, cheerful without much reason.</string>
    <string name="q7_option3">3 – Mild. Some unaccountable feelings of well-being that persist.</string>
    <string name="q7_option4">4 – Moderate. Reports excessive or unrealistic feelings of well-being, cheerfulness, confidence or optimism inappropriate to circumstances, some of the time. May frequently joke, smile, be giddy, or overly enthusiastic OR few instances of marked elevated mood with euphoria</string>
    <string name="q7_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Reports excessive or unrealistic feelings of well-being, confidence or optimism inappropriate to circumstances, much of the time. May describe feeling ‘on top of the world’, ‘like everything is falling into place’, or ‘better than ever before’, OR several instances of marked elevated mood with euphoria.</string>
    <string name="q7_option6">6 – Severe. Reports many instances of marked elevated mood with euphoria OR mood definitely elevated almost constantly throughout interview and inappropriate to content.</string>
    <string name="q7_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Individual reports being elated or appears almost intoxicated, laughing, joking, giggling, constantly euphoric, feeling invulnerable, all inappropriate to immediate circumstances. </string>
    <string name="q8_title">BPRS-E: 8. Grandiosity</string>
    <string name="q8_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nExaggerated self-opinion, self-enhancing conviction of special abilities or powers or identity as someone rich or famous. Rate only individual’s statements about himself, not his/her demeanour. Note: if the individual rates 6 or 7 due to grandiose delusions, you must rate Unusual Thought Content at least 4 or above.\n\n“Is there anything special about you? Do you have any special abilities or powers? Have you thought that you might be somebody rich or famous?”\n\n[If the individual reports any grandiose ideas/delusions, ask the following:]\n“How often have you been thinking about [use individual’s description]? Have you told anyone about what you have been thinking? Have you acted on any of these ideas?”</string>
    <string name="q8_s">Q8 (grandiosity):</string>
    <string name="q8_option2">2 – Very mild. Feels great and denies obvious problems, but not unrealistic.</string>
    <string name="q8_option3">3 – Mild. Exaggerated self-opinion beyond abilities and training.</string>
    <string name="q8_option4">4 – Moderate. Inappropriate boastfulness, e.g., claims to be brilliant, insightful or gifted beyond realistic proportions, but rarely self-discloses or acts on these inflated selfconcepts. Does not claim that grandiose accomplishments have actually occurred.</string>
    <string name="q8_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Same as 4 but often self-discloses and acts on these grandiose ideas. May have doubts about the reality of the grandiose ideas. Not delusional.</string>
    <string name="q8_option6">6 – Severe. Delusional – claims to have special powers like ESP, to have millions of dollars, invented new machines, worked at jobs when it is known that he/she was never employed in these capacities, be Jesus Christ, or the Prime Minister. Individual may not be very preoccupied.</string>
    <string name="q8_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Delusional – same as 6 but individual seems very preoccupied and tends to disclose or act on grandiose delusions.</string>
    <string name="q9_title">BPRS-E: 9. Suspiciousness</string>
    <string name="q9_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nExpressed or apparent belief that other persons have acted maliciously or with discriminatory intent. Include persecution by supernatural or other non-human agencies (e.g., the devil). Note: ratings of 3 or above should also be rated under Unusual Thought Content.\n\n“Do you ever feel uncomfortable in public? Does it seem as though others are watching you? Are you concerned about anyone’s intentions toward you? Is anyone going out of their way to give you a hard time, or trying to hurt you? Do you feel in any danger?”\n\n[If individual reports any persecutory ideas/delusions, ask the following:]\n“How often have you been concerned that [use individual’s description]? Have you told anyone about these experiences?”</string>
    <string name="q9_s">Q9 (suspiciousness):</string>
    <string name="q9_option2">2 – Very mild. Seems on guard. Reluctant to respond to some ‘personal’ questions. Reports being overly self-conscious in public.</string>
    <string name="q9_option3">3 – Mild. Describes incidents in which others have harmed or wanted to harm him/her that sound plausible. Individual feels as if others are watching, laughing or criticising him/her in public, but this occurs only occasionally or rarely. Little or no preoccupation.</string>
    <string name="q9_option4">4 – Moderate. Says other persons are talking about him/her maliciously, have negative intentions or may harm him/her. Beyond the likelihood of plausibility, but not delusional. Incidents of suspected persecution occur occasionally (less than once per week) with some preoccupation.</string>
    <string name="q9_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Same as 4, but incidents occur frequently, such as more than once per week. Individual is moderately preoccupied with ideas of persecution OR individual reports persecutory delusions expressed with much doubt (e.g., partial delusion).</string>
    <string name="q9_option6">6 – Severe. Delusional – speaks of Mafia plots, the FBI or others poisoning his/her food, persecution by supernatural forces.</string>
    <string name="q9_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Same as 6, but the beliefs are bizarre or more preoccupying. Individual tends to disclose or act on persecutory delusions.</string>
    <string name="q10_title">BPRS-E: 10. Hallucinations</string>
    <string name="q10_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nReports of perceptual experiences in the absence of relevant external stimuli. When rating degree to which functioning is disrupted by hallucinations, include preoccupation with the content and experience of the hallucinations, as well as functioning disrupted by acting out on the hallucinatory content (e.g., engaging in deviant behaviour due to command hallucinations). Include thoughts aloud (‘gedenkenlautwerden’) or pseudohallucinations (e.g., hears a voice inside head) if a voice quality is present.\n\n“Do you ever seem to hear your name being called?”\n“Have you heard any sounds or people talking to you or about you when there has been nobody around?”\n\n[If hears voices:]\n“What does the voice/voices say? Did it have a voice quality?”\n\n“Do you ever have visions or see things that others do not see? What about smell odours that others do not smell?”\n\n[If the individual reports hallucinations, ask the following:]\n“Have these experiences interfered with your ability to perform your usual activities/work? How do you explain them? How often do they occur?”</string>
    <string name="q10_s">Q10 (hallucinations):</string>
    <string name="q10_option2">2 – Very mild. While resting or going to sleep, sees visions, smells odours or hears voices, sounds, or whispers in the absence of external stimulation, but no impairment in functioning.</string>
    <string name="q10_option3">3 – Mild. While in a clear state of consciousness, hears a voice calling the individual’s name, experiences non-verbal auditory hallucinations (e.g., sounds or whispers), formless visual hallucinations or has sensory experiences in the presence of a modalityrelevant stimulus (e.g., visual illusions) infrequently (e.g., 1-2 times per week) and with no functional impairment. </string>
    <string name="q10_option4">4 – Moderate. Occasional verbal, visual, gustatory, olfactory or tactile hallucinations with no functional impairment OR non-verbal auditory hallucinations/visual illusions more than infrequently or with impairment.</string>
    <string name="q10_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Experiences daily hallucinations OR some areas of functioning are disrupted by hallucinations.</string>
    <string name="q10_option6">6 – Severe. Experiences verbal or visual hallucinations several times a day OR many areas of functioning are disrupted by these hallucinations.</string>
    <string name="q10_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Persistent verbal or visual hallucinations throughout the day OR most areas of functioning are disrupted by these hallucinations.</string>
    <string name="q11_title">BPRS-E: 11. Unusual thought content</string>
    <string name="q11_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nUnusual, odd, strange, or bizarre thought content. Rate the degree of unusualness, not the degree of disorganisation of speech. Delusions are patently absurd, clearly false or bizarre ideas that are expressed with full conviction. Consider the individual to have full conviction if he/she has acted as though the delusional belief was true. Ideas of reference/persecution can be differentiated from delusions in that ideas are expressed with much doubt and contain more elements of reality. Include thought insertion, withdrawal and broadcast. Include grandiose, somatic and persecutory delusions even if rated elsewhere. Note: if Somatic Concern, Guilt, Suspiciousness or Grandiosity are rated 6 or 7 due to delusions, then Unusual Thought Content must be rated 4 or above.\n\n“Have you been receiving any special messages from people or from the way things are arranged around you? Have you seen any references to yourself on TV or in the newspapers?”\n“Can anyone read your mind?”\n“Do you have a special relationship with God?”\n“Is anything like electricity, X-rays, or radio waves affecting you?”\n“Are thoughts put into your head that are not your own?”\n“Have you felt that you were under the control of another person or force?”\n\n[If individual reports any odd ideas/delusions, ask the following:]\n“How often do you think about [use individual’s description]?”\n“Have you told anyone about these experiences? How do you explain the things that have been happening [specify]?”</string>
    <string name="q11_s">Q11 (unusual thought content):</string>
    <string name="q11_option2">2 – Very mild. Ideas of reference (people may stare or may laugh at him), ideas of persecution (people may mistreat him). Unusual beliefs in psychic powers, spirits, UFOs, or unrealistic beliefs in one’s own abilities. Not strongly held. Some doubt. </string>
    <string name="q11_option3">3 – Mild. Same as 2, but degree of reality distortion is more severe as indicated by highly unusual ideas or greater conviction. Content may be typical of delusions (even bizarre), but without full conviction. The delusion does not seem to have fully formed, but is considered as one possible explanation for an unusual experience. </string>
    <string name="q11_option4">4 – Moderate. Delusion present but no preoccupation or functional impairment. May be an encapsulated delusion or a firmly endorsed absurd belief about past delusional circumstances. </string>
    <string name="q11_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Full delusion(s) present with some preoccupation OR some areas of functioning disrupted by delusional thinking. </string>
    <string name="q11_option6">6 – Severe. Full delusion(s) present with much preoccupation OR many areas of functioning are disrupted by delusional thinking.</string>
    <string name="q11_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Full delusion(s) present with almost total preoccupation OR most areas of functioning disrupted by delusional thinking.</string>
    <string name="q12_title">BPRS-E: 12. Bizarre behaviour</string>
    <string name="q12_question">(Rate items 7/12/13 on the basis of individual’s self-report and observed behaviour.)\n\nReports of behaviours which are odd, unusual, or psychotically criminal. Not limited to interview period. Include inappropriate sexual behaviour and inappropriate affect.\n\n“Have you done anything that has attracted the attention of others?”\n“Have you done anything that could have gotten you into trouble with the police?”\n“Have you done anything that seemed unusual or disturbing to others?”</string>
    <string name="q12_s">Q12 (bizarre behaviour):</string>
    <string name="q12_option2">2 – Very mild. Slightly odd or eccentric public behaviour, e.g., occasionally giggles to self, fails to make appropriate eye contact, that does not seem to attract the attention of others OR unusual behaviour conducted in private, e.g., innocuous rituals, that would not attract the attention of others.</string>
    <string name="q12_option3">3 – Mild. Noticeably peculiar public behaviour, e.g., inappropriately loud talking, makes inappropriate eye contact, OR private behaviour that occasionally, but not always, attracts the attention of others, e.g., hoards food, conducts unusual rituals, wears gloves indoors.</string>
    <string name="q12_option4">4 – Moderate. Clearly bizarre behaviour that attracts or would attract (if done privately) the attention or concern of others, but with no corrective intervention necessary. Behaviour occurs occasionally, e.g., fixated staring into space for several minutes, talks back to voices once, inappropriate giggling/laughter on 1-2 occasions, talking loudly to self. </string>
    <string name="q12_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Clearly bizarre behaviour that attracts or would attract (if done privately) the attention of others or the authorities, e.g., fixated staring in a socially disruptive way, frequent inappropriate giggling/laughter, occasionally responds to voices, or eats non-foods.</string>
    <string name="q12_option6">6 – Severe. Bizarre behaviour that attracts attention of others and intervention by authorities, e.g., directing traffic, public nudity, staring into space for long periods, carrying on a conversation with hallucinations, frequent inappropriate giggling/laughter</string>
    <string name="q12_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Serious crimes committed in a bizarre way that attract the attention of others and the control of authorities, e.g., sets fires and stares at flames OR almost constant bizarre behaviour, e.g., inappropriate giggling/laughter, responds only to hallucinations and cannot be engaged in interaction.</string>
    <string name="q13_title">BPRS-E: 13. Self-neglect</string>
    <string name="q13_question">(Rate items 7/12/13 on the basis of individual’s self-report and observed behaviour.)\n\nHygiene, appearance, or eating behaviour below usual expectations, below socially acceptable standards or life threatening.\n\n“How has your grooming been lately? How often do you change your clothes? How often do you take showers? Has anyone (parents/staff) complained about your grooming or dress? Do you eat regular meals?”</string>
    <string name="q13_s">Q13 (self-neglect):</string>
    <string name="q13_option2">2 – Very mild. Hygiene/appearance slightly below usual community standards, e.g., shirt out of pants, buttons unbuttoned, shoe laces untied, but no social or medical consequences.</string>
    <string name="q13_option3">3 – Mild. Hygiene/appearance occasionally below usual community standards, e.g., irregular bathing, clothing is stained, hair uncombed, occasionally skips an important meal. No social or medical consequences.</string>
    <string name="q13_option4">4 – Moderate. Hygiene/appearance is noticeably below usual community standards, e.g., fails to bathe or change clothes, clothing very soiled, hair unkempt, needs prompting, noticeable by others OR irregular eating and drinking with minimal medical concerns and consequences. </string>
    <string name="q13_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Several areas of hygiene/appearance are below usual community standards OR poor grooming draws criticism by others and requires regular prompting. Eating or hydration are irregular and poor, causing some medical problems.</string>
    <string name="q13_option6">6 – Severe. Many areas of hygiene/appearance are below usual community standards, does not always bathe or change clothes even if prompted. Poor grooming has caused social ostracism at school/residence/work, or required intervention. Eating erratic and poor, may require medical intervention.</string>
    <string name="q13_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Most areas of hygiene/appearance/nutrition are extremely poor and easily noticed as below usual community standards OR hygiene/appearance/nutrition require urgent and immediate medical intervention.</string>
    <string name="q14_title">BPRS-E: 14. Disorientation</string>
    <string name="q14_question">(Rate items 1–14 on the basis of individual’s self-report.)\n\nDoes not comprehend situations or communications, such as questions asked during the entire BPRS interview. Confusion regarding person, place, or time. Do not rate if incorrect responses are due to delusions.\n\n“May I ask you some standard questions we ask everybody?”\n“How old are you? What is the date [allow 2 days]”\n“What is this place called? What year were you born? Who is the Prime Minister?”</string>
    <string name="q14_s">Q14 (disorientation):</string>
    <string name="q14_option2">2 – Very mild. Seems muddled or mildly confused 1–2 times during interview. Oriented to person, place and time.</string>
    <string name="q14_option3">3 – Mild. Occasionally muddled or mildly confused 3–4 times during interview. Minor inaccuracies in person, place, or time, e.g., date off by more than 2 days, or gives wrong division of hospital or community centre.</string>
    <string name="q14_option4">4 – Moderate. Frequently confused during interview. Minor inaccuracies in person, place, or time are noted, as in 3 above. In addition, may have difficulty remembering general information, e.g., name of Prime Minister.</string>
    <string name="q14_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Markedly confused during interview, or to person, place, or time. Significant inaccuracies are noted, e.g., date off by more than one week, or cannot give correct name of hospital. Has difficulty remembering personal information, e.g., where he/she was born or recognising familiar people. </string>
    <string name="q14_option6">6 – Severe. Disoriented as to person, place, or time, e.g., cannot give correct month and year. Disoriented in 2 out of 3 spheres.</string>
    <string name="q14_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Grossly disoriented as to person, place, or time, e.g., cannot give name or age. Disoriented in all three spheres.</string>
    <string name="q15_title">BPRS-E: 15. Conceptual disorganisation</string>
    <string name="q15_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nDegree to which speech is confused, disconnected, vague or disorganised. Rate tangentiality, circumstantiality, sudden topic shifts, incoherence, derailment, blocking, neologisms, and other speech disorders. Do not rate content of speech.</string>
    <string name="q15_s">Q15 (conceptual disorganisation):</string>
    <string name="q15_option2">2 – Very mild. Peculiar use of words or rambling but speech is comprehensible.</string>
    <string name="q15_option3">3 – Mild. Speech a bit hard to understand or make sense of due to tangentiality, circumstantiality, or sudden topic shifts.</string>
    <string name="q15_option4">4 – Moderate. Speech difficult to understand due to tangentiality, circumstantiality, idiosyncratic speech, or topic shifts on many occasions OR 1-2 instances of incoherent phrases.</string>
    <string name="q15_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Speech difficult to understand due to circumstantiality, tangentiality, neologisms, blocking or topic shifts most of the time, OR 3-5 instances of incoherent phrases.</string>
    <string name="q15_option6">6 – Severe. Speech is incomprehensible due to severe impairment most of the time. Many BPRS items cannot be rated by self-report alone.</string>
    <string name="q15_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Speech is incomprehensible throughout interview.</string>
    <string name="q16_title">BPRS-E: 16. Blunted affect</string>
    <string name="q16_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nRestricted range in emotional expressiveness of face, voice, and gestures. Marked indifference or flatness even when discussing distressing topics. In the case of euphoric or dysphoric individuals, rate Blunted Affect if a flat quality is also clearly present.\n\nUse the following probes at end of interview to assess emotional responsivity:\n“Have you heard any good jokes lately? Would you like to hear a joke?”</string>
    <string name="q16_s">Q16 (blunted affect):</string>
    <string name="q16_option2">2 – Very mild. Emotional range is slightly subdued or reserved but displays appropriate facial expressions and tone of voice that are within normal limits.</string>
    <string name="q16_option3">3 – Mild. Emotional range overall is diminished, subdued or reserved, without many spontaneous and appropriate emotional responses. Voice tone is slightly monotonous.</string>
    <string name="q16_option4">4 – Moderate. Emotional range is noticeably diminished, individual doesn’t show emotion, smile or react to distressing topics except infrequently. Voice tone is monotonous or there is noticeable decrease in spontaneous movements. Displays of emotion or gestures are usually followed by a return to flattened affect.</string>
    <string name="q16_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Emotional range very diminished, individual doesn’t show emotion, smile, or react to distressing topics except minimally, few gestures, facial expression does not change very often. Voice tone is monotonous much of the time.</string>
    <string name="q16_option6">6 – Severe. Very little emotional range or expression. Mechanical in speech and gestures most of the time. Unchanging facial expression. Voice tone is monotonous most of the time.</string>
    <string name="q16_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Virtually no emotional range or expressiveness, stiff movements. Voice tone is monotonous all of the time.</string>
    <string name="q17_title">BPRS-E: 17. Emotional withdrawal</string>
    <string name="q17_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nDeficiency in individual’s ability to relate emotionally during interview situation. Use your own feeling as to the presence of an ‘invisible barrier’ between individual and interviewer. Include withdrawal apparently due to psychotic processes.</string>
    <string name="q17_s">Q17 (emotional withdrawal:</string>
    <string name="q17_option2">2 – Very mild. Lack of emotional involvement shown by occasional failure to make reciprocal comments, appearing preoccupied, or smiling in a stilted manner, but spontaneously engages the interviewer most of the time.</string>
    <string name="q17_option3">3 – Mild. Lack of emotional involvement shown by noticeable failure to make reciprocal comments, appearing preoccupied, or lacking in warmth, but responds to interviewer when approached.</string>
    <string name="q17_option4">4 – Moderate. Emotional contact not present much of the interview because individual does not elaborate responses, fails to make eye contact, doesn’t seem to care if interviewer is listening, or may be preoccupied with psychotic material.</string>
    <string name="q17_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Same as 4 but emotional contact not present most of the interview.</string>
    <string name="q17_option6">6 – Severe. Actively avoids emotional participation. Frequently unresponsive or responds with yes/no answers (not solely due to persecutory delusions). Responds with only minimal affect.</string>
    <string name="q17_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Consistently avoids emotional participation. Unresponsive or responds with yes/no answers (not solely due to persecutory delusions). May leave during interview or just not respond at all.</string>
    <string name="q18_title">BPRS-E: 18. Motor retardation</string>
    <string name="q18_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nReduction in energy level evidenced by slowed movements and speech, reduced body tone, decreased number of spontaneous body movements. Rate on the basis of observed behaviour of the individual only. Do not rate on the basis of individual’s subjective impression of his own energy level. Rate regardless of medication effects.</string>
    <string name="q18_s">Q18 (motor retardation):</string>
    <string name="q18_option2">2 – Very mild. Slightly slowed or reduced movements or speech compared to most people. </string>
    <string name="q18_option3">3 – Mild. Noticeably slowed or reduced movements or speech compared to most people.</string>
    <string name="q18_option4">4 – Moderate. Large reduction or slowness in movements or speech.</string>
    <string name="q18_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Seldom moves or speaks spontaneously OR very mechanical or stiff movements.</string>
    <string name="q18_option6">6 – Severe. Does not move or speak unless prodded or urged.</string>
    <string name="q18_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Frozen, catatonic.</string>
    <string name="q19_title">BPRS-E: 19. Tension</string>
    <string name="q19_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nObservable physical and motor manifestations of tension, `nervousness’ and agitation. Self-reported experiences of tension should be rated under the item on anxiety. Do not rate if restlessness is solely akathisia, but do rate if akathisia is exacerbated by tension.</string>
    <string name="q19_s">Q19 (tension):</string>
    <string name="q19_option2">2 – Very mild. More fidgety than most but within normal range. A few transient signs of tension, e.g., picking at fingernails, foot wagging, scratching scalp several times or finger tapping.</string>
    <string name="q19_option3">3 – Mild. Same as 2, but with more frequent or exaggerated signs of tension.</string>
    <string name="q19_option4">4 – Moderate. Many and frequent signs of motor tension with one or more signs sometimes occurring simultaneously, e.g., wagging one’s foot while wringing hands together. There are times when no signs of tension are present.</string>
    <string name="q19_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Many and frequent signs of motor tension with one or more signs often occurring simultaneously. There are still rare times when no signs of tension are present.</string>
    <string name="q19_option6">6 – Severe. Same as 5, but signs of tension are continuous.</string>
    <string name="q19_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Multiple motor manifestations of tension are continuously present, e.g., continuous pacing and hand wringing.</string>
    <string name="q20_title">BPRS-E: 20. Unco-operativeness</string>
    <string name="q20_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nResistance and lack of willingness to co-operate with the interview. The uncooperativeness might result from suspiciousness. Rate only unco-operativeness in relation to the interview, not behaviours involving peers and relatives.</string>
    <string name="q20_s">Q20 (unco-operativeness):</string>
    <string name="q20_option2">2 – Very mild. Shows non-verbal signs of reluctance, but does not complain or argue.</string>
    <string name="q20_option3">3 – Mild. Gripes or tries to avoid complying, but goes ahead without argument.</string>
    <string name="q20_option4">4 – Moderate. Verbally resists but eventually complies after questions are rephrased or repeated.</string>
    <string name="q20_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Same as 4, but some information necessary for accurate ratings is withheld.</string>
    <string name="q20_option6">6 – Severe. Refuses to co-operate with interview, but remains in interview situation.</string>
    <string name="q20_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Same as 6, with active efforts to escape the interview.</string>
    <string name="q21_title">BPRS-E: 21. Excitement</string>
    <string name="q21_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nHeightened emotional tone or increased emotional reactivity to interviewer or topics being discussed, as evidenced by increased intensity of facial expressions, voice tone, expressive gestures or increase in speech quantity and speed.</string>
    <string name="q21_s">Q21 (excitement):</string>
    <string name="q21_option2">2 – Very mild. Subtle and fleeting or questionable increase in emotional intensity. For example, at times seems keyed-up or overly alert.</string>
    <string name="q21_option3">3 – Mild. Subtle but persistent increase in emotional intensity. For example, lively use of gestures and variation in voice tone.</string>
    <string name="q21_option4">4 – Moderate. Definite but occasional increase in emotional intensity. For example, reacts to interviewer or topics that are discussed with noticeable emotional intensity. Some pressured speech.</string>
    <string name="q21_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Definite and persistent increase in emotional intensity. For example, reacts to many stimuli, whether relevant or not, with considerable emotional intensity. Frequent pressured speech.</string>
    <string name="q21_option6">6 – Severe. Marked increase in emotional intensity. For example, reacts to most stimuli with inappropriate emotional intensity. Has difficulty settling down or staying on task. Often restless, impulsive, or speech is often pressured.</string>
    <string name="q21_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Marked and persistent increase in emotional intensity. Reacts to all stimuli with inappropriate intensity, impulsiveness. Cannot settle down or stay on task. Very restless and impulsive most of the time. Constant pressured speech.</string>
    <string name="q22_title">BPRS-E: 22. Distractibility</string>
    <string name="q22_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nDegree to which observed sequences of speech and actions are interrupted by stimuli unrelated to the interview. Distractibility is rated when the individual shows a change in the focus of attention as characterised by a pause in speech or a marked shift in gaze. Individual’s attention may be drawn to noise in adjoining room, books on a shelf, interviewer’s clothing, etc. Do not rate circumstantiality, tangentiality or flight of ideas. Also, do not rate rumination with delusional material. Rate even if the distracting stimulus cannot be identified.</string>
    <string name="q22_s">Q22 (distractibility):</string>
    <string name="q22_option2">2 – Very mild. Generally can focus on interviewer’s questions with only 1 distraction or inappropriate shift of attention of brief duration.</string>
    <string name="q22_option3">3 – Mild. Individual shifts focus of attention to matters unrelated to the interview 2–3 times.</string>
    <string name="q22_option4">4 – Moderate. Often responsive to irrelevant stimuli in the room, e.g., averts gaze from the interviewer.</string>
    <string name="q22_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Same as above, but now distractibility clearly interferes with the flow of the interview.</string>
    <string name="q22_option6">6 – Severe. Extremely difficult to conduct interview or pursue a topic due to preoccupation with irrelevant stimuli.</string>
    <string name="q22_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Impossible to conduct interview due to preoccupation with irrelevant stimuli.</string>
    <string name="q23_title">BPRS-E: 23. Motor hyperactivity</string>
    <string name="q23_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nIncrease in energy level evidenced in more frequent movement and/or rapid speech. Do not rate if restlessness is due to akathisia.</string>
    <string name="q23_s">Q23 (hyperactivity):</string>
    <string name="q23_option2">2 – Very mild. Some restlessness, difficulty sitting still, lively facial expressions, or somewhat talkative.</string>
    <string name="q23_option3">3 – Mild. Occasionally very restless, definite increase in motor activity, lively gestures, 1–3 brief instances of pressured speech.</string>
    <string name="q23_option4">4 – Moderate. Very restless, fidgety, excessive facial expressions, or non-productive and repetitious motor movements. Much pressured speech, up to one-third of the interview.</string>
    <string name="q23_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Frequently restless, fidgety. Many instances of excessive nonproductive and repetitious motor movements. On the move most of the time. Frequent pressured speech, difficult to interrupt. Rises on 1–2 occasions to pace.</string>
    <string name="q23_option6">6 – Severe. Excessive motor activity, restlessness, fidgety, loud tapping, noisy, etc., throughout most of the interview. Speech can only be interrupted with much effort. Rises on 3–4 occasions to pace.</string>
    <string name="q23_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Constant excessive motor activity throughout entire interview, e.g., constant pacing, constant pressured speech with no pauses, individual can only be interrupted briefly and only small amounts of relevant information can be obtained.</string>
    <string name="q24_title">BPRS-E: 24. Mannerisms and posturing</string>
    <string name="q24_question">(Rate items 15–24 on the basis of observed behaviour and speech.)\n\nUnusual and bizarre behaviour, stylised movements or acts, or any postures which are clearly uncomfortable or inappropriate. Exclude obvious manifestations of medication side effects. Do not include nervous mannerisms that are not odd or unusual.</string>
    <string name="q24_s">Q24 (mannerisms/posturing):</string>
    <string name="q24_option2">2 – Very mild. Eccentric or odd mannerisms or activity that ordinary persons would have difficulty explaining, e.g., grimacing, picking. Observed once for a brief period.</string>
    <string name="q24_option3">3 – Mild. Same as 2, but occurring on two occasions of brief duration.</string>
    <string name="q24_option4">4 – Moderate. Mannerisms or posturing, e.g., stylised movements or acts, rocking, nodding, rubbing, or grimacing, observed on several occasions for brief periods or infrequently but very odd. For example, uncomfortable posture maintained for 5 seconds more than twice. </string>
    <string name="q24_option5">5 – Moderately severe. Same as 4, but occurring often, or several examples of very odd mannerisms or posturing that are idiosyncratic to the individual.</string>
    <string name="q24_option6">6 – Severe. Frequent stereotyped behaviour, assumes and maintains uncomfortable or inappropriate postures, intense rocking, smearing, strange rituals or foetal posturing. Individual can interact with people and the environment for brief periods despite these behaviours.</string>
    <string name="q24_option7">7 – Extremely severe. Same as 6, but individual cannot interact with people or the environment due to these behaviours.</string>

  </task>
</resources>